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团伙将香烟藏在客车暗格走私入境 涉案6.38亿元

2019-05-20 23:10 来源:西安网

  团伙将香烟藏在客车暗格走私入境 涉案6.38亿元

  她们得到的不仅是“年度最美女人”的荣誉,还将获得搜狐集团对她们的全网推广、海量资源曝光,更能登陆2019年秋冬米兰时装周官方日程活动的设计师发布秀,并有机会签约搜狐视频。耿爽表示,中美作为两个大国,保持两国关系健康稳定发展,不仅符合双方的共同利益,也符合世界利益,是国际社会的普遍期待。

BEIJING,June13(Xinhua)--AChineseForeignMinistryspokespersonsaidWednesdaythatthemeetingbetweentheleadersoftheDemocraticPeoplesRepublicofKorea(DPRK)andtheUnitedStateshadimportantandpositivehistoricsignificance."Agoodbeginningishalfdone,"spokespersonGengShuangtoldapressbr,whichwereimportantprogressinpromotingdenuclearizationoftheKoreanPeninsulaandthepoliticalsettlementprocess."Chinagreatlyappreciatesthepoliticaldecisionsmadebythetwoleaders,welcomesandsupportstheachievementsofthemeeting,andapplaudstheeffortsmadebyrelevantpartiestomakethemeetingasuccess,"Gengsaid.",itisofimportantandpositivesignificancefortheleadersofthetwocountriestositdowntogetherfortalksonequalfooting.",endthehostilityandconfrontation,andpursuelastingpeaceandprosperityonthepeninsula.""Hecalledonpartiesconcernedtohavepersistence,bepatientandmakeunremittingefforts."Wewishandsupportthetwosidestoimplementtheconsensusreachedbythetwoleaders,promotefollow-upconsultations,furtherconsolidateandexpandtheachievements,andmakethepoliticalsettlementofthepeninsulaissueasustainableandirreversibleprocess,"Gengsaid."AsaneighborofthepeninsulaandanimportantpartytotheKoreanPeninsulaaffairs,Chinastandsreadytoworkwithotherrelevantpartiestowarddenuclearizationandtheestablishmentofapeacemechanismonthepeninsula,andmakepositiveeffortsandcontributionstothelastingstabilityontheKoreanPeninsula."AngelinaJoliehasbeenorderedbyajudgetohelprepairherchildrensrelationshipwiththeirfather,,ajudgedeterminedthatthekids"nothavingarelationshipwiththeirfatherisharmfultothem."Inaddition,thejudgedeterminedthatitis"criticalthateachofthemhaveahealthyandstrongrelationship"withboth43-year-oldJolieand54-year-oldPitt."Iftheminorchildrenremaincloseddowntotheirfatheranddependingonthecircumstancessurroundingthiscondition,itmayresultinareductionofthetimetheyspendwith[Jolie]andmayresultintheCourtorderingprimaryphysicalcustodyto[Pitt],""misleadingleak"ofthesecourtdocs"isnotinthebestinterestsofthechildren.""Fromthestart,Angelinahasbeenfocusedontheirhealthandneeds,whichiswhyitwassoimportantthatthislastcourthearingbeconductedprivately,"thespokespersonadds."Itsdeplorablethatsomeonefortheirownselfishreasonsleakedselectiveportionsoftheconfidentialandsealedcourtrecordtocreateaninaccurateandunfairpictureofwhatisreallyhappening."Accordingtothecourtdocuments,Pittwillnowhavemoretimewithhischildren--14-year-oldPax,13-year-oldZahara,12-year-oldShilohand9-year-oldtwinsKnoxandVivienne--overthesummer,while16-year-oldMaddox,"becauseofhisageandmaturity,",thedocumentsstatethatJoliemustprovidePittwithpersonalcoJune17forfourhoursperdaywhilehestaysinLondon--whereJoliecurr,,,he,JolieisnotallowedtobepresentorinterfereduringPittstimewiththechildren,andisonlyallowedsoriginalcustodyagreementinDecember2016,,Pittwouldcontinuetohaveagreed-upontherapeuticvisitationswiththekids,asdeterminedbythefamilystherapistwho"shallatalltimesconsiderthebestinterestsoftheminorchildren."InJanuary,asourcetoldETthatPittisworkinghardtomaintainagoodrelationshipwithhischildren.“Bradtriestomaintainasafeenvironmentforthechildren,sothatwhentheyvisittheystayhome,”thesourcesaid."Whenthechildrenarevisiting,”"Bradreallyenjoystimewithhiskids,”thesourceadded.“It’”

  我相信清算提案的实施将为搜狐集团和我们的股东带来巨大利益。ConstructionworkersremoveabillboardfromtheroofofabuildingnearTiantanParkinBeijingonNov28.[Photo/Xinhua]TheBeijingcitymanagementauthorityislimitingthenumberandplacementofsignsonbuildingsinorderto"createanurbanskylinethatisvisuallyclearandbright",,,therecanbeonlyonesignwithabuildingsnameonthethirdorhigherstories,ands16districtswilllaunchanenforcementcampaign,thenotificationsaid,andanyfailurebyinstitutionsandindividualstoremove"noncompliant",nearly9,,000signsandbillboardsthatarenon-compliantacrossthecapital,thenewspaperquote,700sig,havingremovedalmost2,willinspectthecapital"roadbyroad",someworriedthatitwillbedifficultforthemtofindtheirdestinations."Sometimes,whenIamlookingforfriendsIhavemadeanappointmentwith,Icaneasilyletthemknowmyexactlocationbytellingthemwhatsignisovermyhead,"saidZhangZhenyu,tlikethefeelingofwalkingnearbuildingswithsignsovertheroofs."Someofthesignsorbillboardshavebeenthereforyearsandtheymayfalldown,"thenetizencommentedonWeibo.

  LANZHOU,June13(Xinhua)--WiththerapidexpansionofChinaswinemarketinrecentyears,,whohasmanagedwineriesinFrancefor15years,heworldandpeople,withyear-on-yeargrowthofalmost17percent,makingChinathefastestgrowingandfifthlargestmarketworldwide,accordingtoXiKang,co-sponsorandjointvice-chairmanoftheChinaWineAssociationsAlliance."sandalleys,",whicha,professorandassociatedeanoftheCollegeofLifeSciencesofNorthwestNormalUniversity,setupanelectivecoursecalledVintageScienceandWineCulturein2008,sclassinitially,,,therearealsostudentswhowanttogetaqualificationcertificateasawinetasterinthefuture.",Ihopetolearnmoreaboutit,"saidMaYanhong,ngbetween120and1,,anemployeeatwineeducationserviceTastingAnnex,saidthewineindustrywasinarisingperiod,andwinetastingwasingreatneedaswineeducation,production,marketing,hotelsandotherfieldsshowedstrongdemand."Inrecentyears,thosewhocometoapplyforthewine-tasterqualificatiosfordevelopment,"s80sand90sgenerationpursuedahealthyandhigh-qualitylifestyleandhad"astrongerlearningabilityandmoreadvancedconsumptionconcept,"meaningdemandforwinewouldcontinuetogrowinthefuture.Theconceptofpal,a10-week-oldgirlwhohadbeenabandonedbyherparentsafteranoperation,butshewillnotforgetthetoddler,whodiedlatelastyear."Hertinybodywasfragileandencumberedwithdrainsandpost-operativewounds,"saidGould,co-founderoftheButterflyChildrensHospices,anNGOthatrunstheButterflyHomeinChangsha,Hunanprovince,inalillnesses."Forsomeofournewstaff,,ourcarers-ayiaswecalltheminChinese-wereafraidtheirhandswouldbruiseorbreakthistinyhummingbirdofagirl,"Gouldsaid."Yetwithquietresolve,ourstaffputtheirfearsaside-toseeAlexa,sheknewonlylove,"saidthe67-year-old,whosetuptheButterflyHomein2010,,thehomesdirector,saidloveisattheheartofpalliativecare,atermthatisbecomingincreasinglycommonintheChinesemedicalworld."Palliativecareisspecialized,all-aroundcareforpeoplewithsevere,oftenterminal,,palliativecarefocusesonthereliefofsymptomsandofferingmental,ind,",abandonedchildwithasenseofpeaceisadauntingtask,,anoncologistattheBeijingChildrensHospital,clearlyremembersseeingadyingboypressinghisfaceagainstthewindowbesidehisbed."Hewasabout2,,helongedtogooutsideandplay,arequestrepeatedlyturneddownbyhismotherwhowasworriedabouthisphysicalcondition,"shesaid."Weekslater,Icameacrosstheboy,andbythefactthatshehadrefusedhisonelastwish,"Zhousaid."Sadly,regretsarecommonamongparents,whoarefocusedtoosingle-mindedlyonseekingacurefortheirdyingchild."ShesaidthesuccessofchildrenspalliativecareinChinawilldependonwhetherparentscanacceptthattheprocessisnotabout"givingup",butabout"makingpeacewithoneselfwhilehavingadignified,less-painfulexitfromlife,thisisdonebyspeciallytrainedteamsofdoctors,nursesandsocialworkerswhoworktogetherwithapatientsdo,myteamofdoctorsandnurseshavetoundertakedualroles."Strangely,thisarrangementmaybettersuitthecurrentsituation:Chineseparentsaregenerallyskepticalaboutthenotionofpalliativecare,andconsequentlymayneedadvicefrompeopletheytrust,suchasmedicalstaffwhotreatedtheirchild."Weadvocateanintegratedapproach,wherebypalliativecareisofferedtopatientsatarelativelyearlystage,alongwithcurativetreatment,"Zhousaid."Later,astheillnessprogresses,wegraduallyraisethelevelofpalliativecarewhilereducingtheroleofactivetreatment."Inreality,breakthroughsoftencomeatunlikely-sometimespainful-moments;forexamplewhenactiveinterventionhasfailedorwreakedconsiderabledamageonthechild."Whenparentsfeelvulnerable,theytendtobemoreopentoideasthattheymightotherwiseimmediatelydismiss,"saidWangXumei,aveteranpediatricnurseinZhousdepartment."Symptomcontrolandmakingterminallyillpatientsfeelacalsufferingwithmorphine-basedmedication,"shesaid.

LANZHOU,June13(Xinhua)--WiththerapidexpansionofChinaswinemarketinrecentyears,,whohasmanagedwineriesinFrancefor15years,heworldandpeople,withyear-on-yeargrowthofalmost17percent,makingChinathefastestgrowingandfifthlargestmarketworldwide,accordingtoXiKang,co-sponsorandjointvice-chairmanoftheChinaWineAssociationsAlliance."sandalleys,",whicha,professorandassociatedeanoftheCollegeofLifeSciencesofNorthwestNormalUniversity,setupanelectivecoursecalledVintageScienceandWineCulturein2008,sclassinitially,,,therearealsostudentswhowanttogetaqualificationcertificateasawinetasterinthefuture.",Ihopetolearnmoreaboutit,"saidMaYanhong,ngbetween120and1,,anemployeeatwineeducationserviceTastingAnnex,saidthewineindustrywasinarisingperiod,andwinetastingwasingreatneedaswineeducation,production,marketing,hotelsandotherfieldsshowedstrongdemand."Inrecentyears,thosewhocometoapplyforthewine-tasterqualificatiosfordevelopment,"s80sand90sgenerationpursuedahealthyandhigh-qualitylifestyleandhad"astrongerlearningabilityandmoreadvancedconsumptionconcept,"meaningdemandforwinewouldcontinuetogrowinthefuture.

  他说,当前需要优先考虑的有以下几个方面:一是加快企业结构调整。

  Chinahastakentheleadworldwideindigitaltechnologies,whicharesettotransformandcreate10to45percentofindustryrevenuesby2030,accordingtothelatestreportreleasedbythethinktankMcKinseyGlobalInstitute(MGI).Thereport,titledDigitalChinaPoweringtheEconomytoGlobalCompetitiveness,saidChinaaccountedforlessthan1percentofthese-commercetransactionsisestimatedtoexceedFrance,Germany,Japan,$790billionin2016,,,Chinaentersthetopthreeintheworldforventurecapitalinvestmentsinvirtualreality,autonomousvehicles,roboticsanddrones,ationisrapidlyclosing,andChinaisinfactrankedhigherinsomesectorsontheMGIIndustryDigitizationIndex,suchasretailtrade,entertainmentandrecreation,utilities,healthcare,,dig,Chinawasalreadytheworldsinternetgiants-BaiduInc,AlibabaGroupHoldingandTencentHoldings,mployees,,thegovernment,whichisalsoaninvestorandconsumerofdigitaltechnology,ConstructionworkersremoveabillboardfromtheroofofabuildingnearTiantanParkinBeijingonNov28.[Photo/Xinhua]TheBeijingcitymanagementauthorityislimitingthenumberandplacementofsignsonbuildingsinorderto"createanurbanskylinethatisvisuallyclearandbright",,,therecanbeonlyonesignwithabuildingsnameonthethirdorhigherstories,ands16districtswilllaunchanenforcementcampaign,thenotificationsaid,andanyfailurebyinstitutionsandindividualstoremove"noncompliant",nearly9,,000signsandbillboardsthatarenon-compliantacrossthecapital,thenewspaperquote,700sig,havingremovedalmost2,willinspectthecapital"roadbyroad",someworriedthatitwillbedifficultforthemtofindtheirdestinations."Sometimes,whenIamlookingforfriendsIhavemadeanappointmentwith,Icaneasilyletthemknowmyexactlocationbytellingthemwhatsignisovermyhead,"saidZhangZhenyu,tlikethefeelingofwalkingnearbuildingswithsignsovertheroofs."Someofthesignsorbillboardshavebeenthereforyearsandtheymayfalldown,"thenetizencommentedonWeibo.

  另据美国《华尔街日报》网站5月6日报道,如果能与平壤达成和平协议,朝鲜半岛是否还需要美国驻军?这个问题曾是华盛顿和首尔的一个禁忌,但在朝美计划举行首脑会谈前夕,一些朝鲜问题观察家预计金正恩会向美国总统提出这一想法。

  其基本共识可归纳为:经济转型过程仍然持续,A股估值已经靠近长期价值区域,需着眼长远,同时防范风险和新经济转型仍然是核心主线,消费升级行业由于增长相对较为确定,值得重点挖掘。SeveralrestaurantsinShanghai,includingMcDonaldsandTaoyuanVillage,saidonTuesdaythattheirproductsarecompletelysafeafterarecentofficialspotcheckfound10eateriessellingsubstandardyoutiao,ndreportedthosenotchangingthecookingoilfrequentlyorproducingfoodofwhichtheamountofcertainindicatorsexceedingthestandardstothecity,inyaDabaobranchesonChangyangRoadandXingguoRoadaswellaseateriesatNo456XiaomuqiaoRoad,soutletsinYangpudistrictandadinerinChangningdistrictwerefoundtocontainresiduesofplasticizer,"WehaveverifiedthatnoplasticizerisaddedduringtheproductionofthefrieddoughsticksandtheirpackagingsoldatallMcDonaldsrestaurants,andconsumerscanrestassured,"McDonaldsChinasaidinastatement."Theoriginoftheplasticizerisbeingthoroughlyinvestigated,"ngsystems."esubstanceinthefoodafterathoroughinvestigation,"ehighestlevelsofsaturatedfattyacid-th,,branchesofYongheKingwereinspected.

  CybersecurityremainsamajorproblemforChinaaselectronicattacksarefrequentworldwideandwithnoendinsight,,,mostofthemfromoverseas,accordingtotheNationalComputerNetworkEmergencyResponseTechnicalTeamandCoordinationCenter,thecountry,,,and"itcanbeclearlyseenthatoursecuritysituationisstillweak,"saidLiJia,deputydirectoroftheauthoritysoperationsdepartment,,hesaid,"thedamagetousandourStatesecuritywillbehuge-beyondourimagination".Nationalsecurityandbusinesshacksareonlypartoftheproblem,homes,,theauthoritysharesinformationaboutsecurityrisksonitsofficialsocialmediaplatformsandwebsiteinatimelymanner,Lisaid."Wellreportsecurityvulnerabilitiesthatmaythreatenthenationsnetworktooursuperiors,,wellalertthemandhelpfixthem,"andregions."Ofthose,26havesignedcybersecuritymemorandumswithus,",secretary-generaloftheCybersecurityAssociationofChina,saidcooperationbetweengovernmentsandenterprisesshouldbeincreased."Ascybersecuritybecomesanational-levelstrategy,ourabilityandskillsagainstcyberthreatswillbeeffectivelyboosted,andrelatedcampaignswillbeeasiertodevelop,",vice-presidentoftheChinaInformationSecurityResearchInstitute,saidcooperationbetweencountriesissometimeshardtoaccomplishbecauseofdifferentunderstandingsofcybersecurityandvaryinglevelsofinterest."Itsgoodtoseethatsomenationsrealizetheseriousnessofcyberattacksandarewillingtotalkwithus,"hesaid."Buttalkingandreachingconsensuswilltaketime."

  ConstructionworkersremoveabillboardfromtheroofofabuildingnearTiantanParkinBeijingonNov28.[Photo/Xinhua]TheBeijingcitymanagementauthorityislimitingthenumberandplacementofsignsonbuildingsinorderto"createanurbanskylinethatisvisuallyclearandbright",,,therecanbeonlyonesignwithabuildingsnameonthethirdorhigherstories,ands16districtswilllaunchanenforcementcampaign,thenotificationsaid,andanyfailurebyinstitutionsandindividualstoremove"noncompliant",nearly9,,000signsandbillboardsthatarenon-compliantacrossthecapital,thenewspaperquote,700sig,havingremovedalmost2,willinspectthecapital"roadbyroad",someworriedthatitwillbedifficultforthemtofindtheirdestinations."Sometimes,whenIamlookingforfriendsIhavemadeanappointmentwith,Icaneasilyletthemknowmyexactlocationbytellingthemwhatsignisovermyhead,"saidZhangZhenyu,tlikethefeelingofwalkingnearbuildingswithsignsovertheroofs."Someofthesignsorbillboardshavebeenthereforyearsandtheymayfalldown,"thenetizencommentedonWeibo.

  BEIJING,June14(Xinhua)--China,slowerthanthe7-percentriseinthepreviousmonthbutstillfasterthanthe6-percentincreaseinMarch,,,flatwiththatofthefirstfourmonths,,officiallycalledindustrialvalueadded,isusedtomeasuretheactivityofdesignatedlargeenterpriseswithannualturnoverofatleast20millionyuan().Abreakdownofthedatashowedtheproductionandsupplyofelectricity,thermalpower,,,,informationtechnology,andbusinessservicesmaintainedrobustincreases.CybersecurityremainsamajorproblemforChinaaselectronicattacksarefrequentworldwideandwithnoendinsight,,,mostofthemfromoverseas,accordingtotheNationalComputerNetworkEmergencyResponseTechnicalTeamandCoordinationCenter,thecountry,,,and"itcanbeclearlyseenthatoursecuritysituationisstillweak,"saidLiJia,deputydirectoroftheauthoritysoperationsdepartment,,hesaid,"thedamagetousandourStatesecuritywillbehuge-beyondourimagination".Nationalsecurityandbusinesshacksareonlypartoftheproblem,homes,,theauthoritysharesinformationaboutsecurityrisksonitsofficialsocialmediaplatformsandwebsiteinatimelymanner,Lisaid."Wellreportsecurityvulnerabilitiesthatmaythreatenthenationsnetworktooursuperiors,,wellalertthemandhelpfixthem,"andregions."Ofthose,26havesignedcybersecuritymemorandumswithus,",secretary-generaloftheCybersecurityAssociationofChina,saidcooperationbetweengovernmentsandenterprisesshouldbeincreased."Ascybersecuritybecomesanational-levelstrategy,ourabilityandskillsagainstcyberthreatswillbeeffectivelyboosted,andrelatedcampaignswillbeeasiertodevelop,",vice-presidentoftheChinaInformationSecurityResearchInstitute,saidcooperationbetweencountriesissometimeshardtoaccomplishbecauseofdifferentunderstandingsofcybersecurityandvaryinglevelsofinterest."Itsgoodtoseethatsomenationsrealizetheseriousnessofcyberattacksandarewillingtotalkwithus,"hesaid."Buttalkingandreachingconsensuswilltaketime."

  

  团伙将香烟藏在客车暗格走私入境 涉案6.38亿元

 
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解放军接管大上海时培训手册:团结市民心连心

2019-05-20 09:03:53  澎湃新闻网  
目前,搜狐新闻客户端每月新闻曝光量超过900亿次,优质资讯精准触达5亿用户,搜狐新闻客户端拥有超过57万自媒体人入驻。

《城市常识》:解放军接管大上海的培训手册 王书吟

1949年初淮海战役甫告结束,接管大上海的任务随即提上日程。对于大部分解放军官兵来说,在陌生的乡村开展新的革命工作可谓驾轻就熟,但面对大城市却使他们犯了难。这些战士大多来自北方农村,对江南城市的生活极为陌生。由于不熟悉城市生活,在之前接管的城市工作中闹出不少笑话,甚至付出了生命的代价。为了确保接管工作顺利进行,华东区着手抽调一批在上海暴露的地下党员与地方干部,组成编写组负责材料的搜集和撰写工作,旨在指导渡江部队尽快适应城市生活。其中一本二万余字的小册子《城市常识》(下文简称《常识》)就是专门为入城部队编写的培训教材。作者结合之前接管城市中的意外案例,针对性地介绍了城市日常设施的使用方法以及城市居民的风俗习惯,文风平易近人,内容通俗易懂,堪称入城实用百科全书。

人身安全要谨记
城市夜生活的耀目美景离不开明灯霓虹的装点,然而这些随处可见的灯饰却成为夺取解放军战士生命的隐形杀手。接管石家庄后,几个干部除夕大扫除时争着用湿布擦灯泡,导致全体触电身亡;江苏小城里一位战士在灯泡里点卷烟,手碰触电极被吸住,另一位战士即刻伸手去拉,结果“双双变成紫色的尸首”。针对战士们遇到的触电危险,《常识》以电灯为重点,详细介绍城市电力系统和原理,普及使用方法和注意事项,针对容易触电的操作都一一作了分析。编纂者精心地将各种常用电器绘制成图,配以浅显的解说,提醒战士们重点提防潜在危险:风扇转动时远离叶片谨防削手致残,避免把手伸进插座孔里触电,煮饭用的电炉和煤气灶要小心使用等等。还对常见的城市设施如电梯、电铃和电话等做了一番用法大扫盲,堪称“最全电器说明书”。


《城市常识》插图:电灯泡、电风扇、电炉


交通事故是另一大高危因素。火车是乘坐频率最高、也是事故率高发的交通工具。解放军部队进入陇海铁路线和津浦线后,因火车造成的死亡人数极多,事故原因包括头伸出车外被迎面而来的火车剐蹭,在站台拦停高速行驶的火车,火车没有停稳就跳车,以及在铁轨上滞留和奔跑。虽然许多战士在进城前坐过集体火车,但并不清楚购票和乘车规则,个人乘车时有未购票就直接上车的、有坐反方向的、有不按时按点候车的,甚至还有在铁轨边搭招手停的情况。教材指导战士们买票流程、站台须知和乘车规则。尤其强调注意安全,防止上述悲剧的发生。


《城市常识》插图配文:红灯亮时停止,绿灯亮时通行。

解放军野外作战时拦爬汽车是常见的事,但进城后就成了要命的习惯,极易造成主干道交通混乱和人员伤亡。针对这些问题,教材介绍了城市中各类车辆,重点介绍了消防车、救护车等特殊车辆,提醒战士们遇到有紧急任务的车都必须避让。同时教材绘制城市交通图,详细普及了人行道的用途、红灯停绿灯行的交通规则、有轨电车和汽车的乘坐方式等交通常识,尤其强调服从交警听指挥,不能因为是旧有的警察系统就抓进监狱,也不能以功臣自居,“开东开西,使交通警察增加困难”。
提防特务莫大意
鱼龙混杂的大城市不仅充满危险的事物,还暗藏潜伏的敌人,不甘失败的国民党政府撤退时在城中布置了大批特务。一些战士想当然地认为特务是穿军服的,在接管沈阳和济南时犯了以衣识人的教条主义错误,见身着制服的人便不分青红皂白逮捕,引起市民的恐慌和不满。为了杜绝乱抓乱捕的现象,《常识》针对上海不同阶层的市民群体做了详细的衣着调查,当时上海校服流行卡其布质地的夹克和呢大衣,与国民党军队制服很相似,教材特别强调以军帽和绑腿来区分学生校服和军队制服。由于美军曾在上海大量抛售过质美价廉的美式军服,城市青年购买美式军服的也不在少数,因此教材还请战士注意不要误抓穿美国军大衣的普通市民。
事实上,真正的特务并不会穿着制服在大街上招摇过市,他们往往潜藏在阴暗的角落布置棋子伺机窃取情报。而军队干部进城前没有地下斗争的经验,随意把文件放在口袋里或者直接拿在手上成为习惯,丝毫没有保密意识,很容易被特务雇佣的扒手盯上。上海的扒手手段尤其巧妙、防不胜防,因此教材要求大家在人流密集的公共场所多留心眼,牢记“财不外露,提高警惕”的八字秘诀。除窃取情报外,特务还会利用妓女引诱和腐蚀干部和战士,当然女特务也会亲自上阵。这些站街女会“嬉皮笑脸、连拉带拖”地把路人往家里带,如果中招了,就会在“跟她腐化”时被套出机密文件,一旦被“腐化”轻则破坏革命工作,重则染上梅毒或其他不治之症,因此教材提醒进城官兵看到这些“特殊的人”一定要站稳立场,以极端严肃的态度拒绝。
作为远东国际大都市,上海与乡村极大的不同体现在“华洋杂处”的人居格局。教材将外国人分为“非帝国主义的外国人”与“伪装特务的外国敌对分子”,对前者“要予以充分的尊重”,不能因对方高鼻深目的特殊长相随意抓人;对后者则要警惕他们“假借买卖、教书、传教、办报、采访为名从事刺探军情的勾当”。书中还特别叮嘱战士不要随便照相,以免“给特务们搜集现成材料的机会”。


上海市民阅读共产党宣传海报

团结市民心连心
城市和乡村具有截然不同的伦理文化和生活习惯。在与市民打交道时,许多官兵以乡村的一套习惯待人处事。据当事人回忆,干部们刚进城时不但不熟悉城市生活,阶级仇恨的思维方式导致他们“见到衣衫褴褛者就倍感亲近,对衣着整洁者则侧目而视”。在1947年代对石家庄的一次大搜查中,一些干部将居民家中的拖把当填充土炮的工具,勒令这些“反革命”交出大炮。这些情绪和误解使得接管工作遇到许多阻力。《常识》特辟一章将城市居民按照职业和经济地位划分阶级成分,教育官兵要团结市民和睦共处,维持城市稳定秩序。首先应尊重城市居民,对待市民的态度要“热情、正派、和气,不要轻浮”,使居民了解“我党我军是正直无私、和蔼可亲的人”。要和市民讲客套,称呼不能如农村一样简单直接,要系统学习城市的礼貌称谓,比如先生、小姐、同学等等。对都市开放的生活作风也要持宽容态度,看到“马路上男人和女人手挽着手地走着,我们不要惊奇、好笑,也不应去侮辱他们”,不能用乡村的保守风俗指责城市居民,而要通过以后的改造逐步树立新的城市风气。


进城后露宿街头的解放军官兵

在注意和市民打交道的同时,进城官兵还应尊重市民生活的习惯。过去部队行军物资缺乏,习惯向老乡借钱粮和日常物品应急。虽然会打欠条按时归还,但对习惯于商品买卖的市民来说,打欠条借物不符合商业逻辑,因此部队专门成立负责借物的机关进行统一筹借防止扰民。传统乡村的本质是熟人共同体,串门子走邻居是常见的交往方式。但大城市中公私空间泾渭分明,家作为绝对的私领域并不随时对陌生人敞开大门,因此教材强调官兵不能像在乡下一样“为了拉呱(聊天)和好奇不请自入”,更不能随意开口要求在市民家借宿。即使是找人和拜访也不能擅入居民家中,要按规矩敲门和按门铃,如果在下雨天进房间要擦干净鞋底,注意城市卫生。在不扰民的同时,还要严格遵循城市纪律,尤其禁止鸣枪,以免引发居民恐慌。
初入上海多留心
城市和乡村遵循的生存逻辑全然不同。上海的消费文化极为发达,钱,理所当然地成为在上海生存的根本基础。但这对于习惯于自给自足的农村官兵来说却与剥削并无二致。有的战士抱怨进城衣食住行都要钱:坐车买票要钱,生火做饭要煤气钱,点电灯要电钱,甚至连喝水也要交自来水钱,生出许多不满。一些战士不知道进公园需要买门票,结果和售票员产生冲突,打伤对方强行闯入,造成了不良影响。
针对这一现象,《常识》向战士们科普了钱的用途,并特别标注了需要用钱的场所,提醒战士们不要随意进入。对于免费的场所,如博物馆、动物院为代表的文化机关,提醒大家在遵守章程的同时鼓励大家参观学习,尤其在动物院观赏动物时不能忘乎所以地打开笼子,否则“会飞的飞走,要吃人的就到处咬人”。针对收费的场所,除了介绍一般的百货商店和金融机构之外,《常识》将城市公共空间划分为正规的文化娱乐场所和“特殊”场所两类。正规的商业场所包括公园和游泳池,提醒战士们进入这些地方要掏钱买票,虽然这是资本主义的“老一套”,但在现阶段必须要忍耐,在民主政府没有废除买票制度前绝对禁止强行闯入。如果在被旧社会腐化的游泳池和运动场看到“谈恋爱吊膀子的小姐哥儿们”,也不要觉得败坏风气,“不要随便干涉别人的行动,更不要看不惯,谩骂人家”,要顾全大局,一切以团结人民和稳定局势为主。
相比于对屈指可数的几个正式场所的简单介绍,教材列举的特殊场所类型远远多于前者。大烟馆、赌博场、跑马厅、妓院这种涉及“黄赌毒”,甚至连满足日常衣食住行的茶馆、咖啡馆、饮冰室,乃至电影院、京戏院、照相馆和理发馆都榜上有名。几乎所有的消费场所均被视为需要改造的“复杂腐化”场所。除非肩负特殊工作任务或者上级批准,这些场所一概禁止入内。


民国上海游艺场天韵楼

另一些特殊场所的名称具有迷惑性,比如舞厅。在新民主主义社会建设的公家舞厅,跳舞意味着纯粹的娱乐和运动,因此并没有以跳舞为职业的舞女,跳舞只是“同志间集体娱乐的一种高尚运动”。而大城市中资本家治下的舞厅老板雇了一批舞女当商品,按跳舞时间来算钱,骗人钱财不说还腐化人心。因此在城市的大街上听悠扬的音乐,看见建筑美丽,千万别以为是开音乐晚会而“直闯了进去”。游艺场是城市里一般市民玩的地方,包含平剧场、双簧、大鼓书、地方戏、滑稽戏等各种混合游艺,因廉价深受工人、贫民和小商人的欢迎。虽然演艺形式丰富但格调不高,内容“多半是最淫荡的低级趣味的”,“如果善加利用,改造新内容和新思想,将会是城市依靠大众、团结大众的好场所”。


解放军从外白渡桥进入外滩

在中共中央的高度重视和充分准备下,部队渡江后由政训队培训城市政策,指导官兵学习城市常识。两个月后,也就是1949年5月,解放军进驻上海,钢铁般的军纪和对市民的充分尊重赢得了社会各界交口称赞。随着接管工作的顺利进行,旧上海换了新天地,从帝国主义堡垒改造成了人民的城市。这背后想来也有这本小册子的一份功劳。
参考资料:
《城市常识》,第三野战军十兵团政治部编印,1949年3月。
《接管上海》,北京:中国广播电视出版社,1993年2月版。

(责任编辑:李东舰 CN031)
 
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